The Symbolism of Oil.
A SERVICE of great solemnity and beauty takes place in every cathedral church [at the chrism mass] each year. The Bishop blesses the oils which are to be used during the ensuing year in the administration of the Sacraments, as well as in various consecrations and blessings of persons and things.
The ceremony of the Blessing of the Oils is full of significant symbolism. It requires the presence of a large number of the clergy, for the sacred oils are considered by the Church to be of such importance as to call for... an imposing ceremonial. Few inanimate things receive more ... honor than the oils which are to be used so often during the year in the imparting of God's grace through Sacraments and blessings.
Each of us Catholics has received already some of the benefits given through these holy oils, namely, in the ceremonies of Baptism and in the conferring of the Sacrament of Confirmation; and we hope some day to obtain further graces through them in Extreme Unction [the Sacrament of the Sick]; and yet it may be that we know little about them. Moreover, few of us are able to be present when the solemn blessing of them takes place in a cathedral church. Therefore this chapter will be devoted to a description of the nature, the uses, the history and the blessing of the Holy Oils.
"Anointing with OIL has all these meanings in the sacramental life. The pre- baptismal anointing with the OIL of catechumens signifies cleansing and strengthening; the anointing of the sick expresses healing and comfort. The post- baptismal anointing with sacred chrism in Confirmation and ordination is the sign of consecration. By Confirmation Christians, that is, those who are anointed, share more completely in the mission of Jesus Christ and the fullness of the HOLY Spirit with which he is filled, so that their lives may give off 'the aroma of Christ.'
In all countries, oil has always been a necessity of daily life. It enters into the preparation of food; it is used as a remedy, internally and externally; in past centuries it was the chief means of furnishing light, being consumed in lamps; it was employed in ancient times by the athletes of the Olympic games, to give suppleness to their muscles. Hence we see the various symbolic meanings of which the Church takes cognizance when she uses it to give us spiritual nourishment, to cure our spiritual ailments, to diffuse the light of grace in our souls, and to render us strong and active in the never-ending conflict with the Spirit of Evil. The use of oil to express the imparting of spiritual strength is so appropriate that the Church employs it not only for the anointing of living beings but also for bells and chalices and other ...things which are to be used as aids in the sanctification of her children.
The oils blessed [at chrism mass] are of three kinds ---
- The Oil of Catechumens,
- The Chrism and
- The Oil of the Sick. Each of them is oil extracted from olives, but the Chrism is distinguished from the others by having balm or balsam mixed with it.
Each of these is blessed by the Bishop with a special form of prayer, expressing the purpose for which it is to be used and its mystical signification as well.
|The Oil of Catechumens. |
This kind of sacred oil is used in the ceremonies of Baptism, and derives its name from that fact -- a catechumen being an instructed convert who is about to receive the Sacrament of Baptism. [During] the administration of that Sacrament [to a child,] the priest says "We anoint you with the oil of salvation in the name of Christ our Savior; may he strengthen you with his power, who lives and reigns for ever and ever." The priest makes with this oil the sign of the cross on the [breast of the] person who is to be baptized...
Why are these unctions [anointings] used? Because the catechumens are considered to be to some extent under the power of the Evil One until they have been united to Christ's mystical body, the Church, by Baptism."
"During the period of the catechumenate, a rite of anointing the catechumens, through use of the oil of catechumens, may be celebrated wherever this seems beneficial or desirable. The presiding celebrant for such a first anointing of the catechumens is a priest or a deacon.
- Care is to be taken that the catechumens understand the significance of the anointing with oil. The anointing with oil symbolizes their need for God's help and strength so that, undeterred by the bonds of the past and overcoming the opposition of the devil, they will forthrightly take the step of professing their faith and will hold fast to it unfalteringly throughout their lives.
The anointing ordinarily takes place after the homily in a celebration of the word of God... , and is conferred on each of the catechumens; this rite of anointing may be celebrated several times during the course of the catechumenate. Further, for particular reasons, a priest or a deacon may confer the anointing privately on individual catechumens.
The oil used for this rite is to be the oil blessed by the bishop at the chrism Mass, but for pastoral reasons a priest celebrant may bless oil for the rite immediately before the anointing.
- Let us pray.
- Lord Jesus Christ, sent by the Father and anointed by the Spirit, when you read in the synagogue at Nazareth, you fulfilled the words of the prophet Isaiah that proclaimed liberty to captives and announced a season of forgiveness.
We pray for these your servants who have opened their ears and hearts to your word. Grant that they may grasp your moment of grace.
Do not let their minds be troubled or their lives tied to earthly desires. Do not let them remain estranged from the hope of your promises or enslaved by a spirit of unbelief. Rather, let them believe in you, whom the Father has established as universal Lord and to whom he has subjected all things.
Let them submit themselves to the Spirit of grace, so that, with hope in their calling, they may join the priestly people and share in the abundant joy of the new Jerusalem, where you live and reign for ever and ever.
Facing the catechumens, the celebrant says:
- We anoint you with the oil of salvation in the name of Christ our Savior. May he strengthen you with his power, who lives and reigns for ever and ever.
|The Holy Chrism. |
"The Chrism is generally held to be the matter or essential substance for the administration of the Sacrament of Confirmation. It is applied by the Bishop in the form of a cross on the forehead of the person confirmed. It is used also in the ceremonies of Baptism, an unction [an anointing] being made with it on the crown of the head immediately after the pouring of the water. Its use is required also in the consecration of a Bishop, and [the ordination of a priest. Baptism makes us sharers in the priesthood of christ. Chrism, which is also used in ordination, brings forward this truth. All those who share in Christ's priesthood, share with him, each at their own level, Christ's role in teaching, sanctifying and leading his people.]
The mixing of this fragrant material with the sacred oil gives the latter the name of Chrism, which signifies a scented ointment. As oil typifies the fullness of grace imparted through the Sacrament, so balsam expresses freedom from corruption and the sweet odor of virtue."
If an adult is baptized, but not immediately confirmed, then the priest says:
- "The God of power and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has freed you from sin and brought you to new life through water and the Holy Spirit.
- He now anoints you with the chrism of salvation, so that, united with his people, you may remain for ever a member of Christ who is Priest, Prophet and King.
- The newly baptized says: Amen. In silence each of the newly baptized is anointed with chrism on the crown of the head." The Rites of the Catholic Church.
"The anointing with sacred chrism, perfumed OIL consecrated by the bishop, signifies the gift of the HOLY Spirit to the newly baptized, who has become a Christian, that is, one 'anointed' by the HOLY Spirit, incorporated into Christ who is anointed priest, prophet, and king." Catechism of the Catholic Church.
This sacrament is normally celebrated by either the bishop, or a priest during the Easter Vigil service when adults are fully received into the Catholic Church. This sacrament releases the Holy Spirit into the life of the person.
- "Very early, the better to signify the gift of the Holy Spirit, an anointing with perfumed oil (chrism) was added to the laying on of hands. This anointing highlights the name 'Christian,' which means 'anointed' and derives from that of Christ himself whom God 'anointed with the HOLY Spirit.'[Acts 10:38 .] This rite of anointing has continued ever since, in both East and West. For this reason the Eastern Churches call this sacrament Chrismation, anointing with chrism, or myron which means 'chrism.' In the West, Confirmation suggests both the ratification of Baptism, thus completing Christian initiation, and the strengthening of baptismal grace - both fruits of the Holy Spirit." Catechism of the Catholic Church.
"The minister of the sacrament dips his right thumb in the chrism and makes the sign of the cross on the forehead of the one to be confirmed as he says:
- N., be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.
- Newly confirmed:
- The minister of the sacrament adds:
- Peace be with you.
- Newly confirmed:
- And also with you.
|The Oil of the Sick.|
This sacred oil, called in Latin "Oleum Infirmorum," is the "matter" or necessary substance for the Sacrament of [The Sacrament of the Sick, formerly known as] Extreme Unction... In the Churches which follow the Latin rite this oil is always pure, without admixture; but in some Eastern Churches it contains a little wine or ashes.
As regards the use of this oil in The Sacrament of the Sick, we know that it was employed in Apostolic times practically in the same manner as now. St. James, in his Epistle, thus instructs the faithful of the early Church: "Is any man sick among you? Let him bring in the priests of the Church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and the Lord shall raise him up. And if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him." James 5:14-15, see Mark 6:13.
"The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum,[Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November 30, 1972.] following upon the Second Vatican Council, established that henceforth, in the Roman Rite, the following be observed:
The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is given to those who are seriously ill by anointing them on the forehead and hands with duly blessed OIL - pressed from olives or from other plants - saying, only once: 'Through this Holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up.'"
The liturgical use of oil for other purposes, as in the ceremonies of Baptism and Holy Orders and in other blessings and consecrations mentioned above, is, in nearly every case, of very ancient origin, being often traceable nearly to the times of the Apostles. In this, as in many other practices, our Church has retained and made use of something which had been employed in the ritual of Judaism; for in the Old Testament we find mention of the anointing with oil in several religious functions, such as the consecration of priests and kings, as well as in sacrifices, legal purifications and the consecration of altars.
When our Church wishes to use any material object for sacred functions she usually sets it apart from other things by giving it a special blessing; thus it is distinguished from substances intended only for ordinary purposes. As regards oil, such blessings are recorded in the rituals of very early times, and do not differ greatly from those given at the present day. Even as far back as the fourth century two kinds of oil were solemnly blessed on Holy Thursday for sacramental uses, one being pure and the other mixed with balsam; the first was what we now call the Oil of Catechumens, and the other was the Chrism. The third kind, the Oil of the Sick, was consecrated by a more simple formula either on that day or at other times, and in some parts of the world it was customary to have this oil blessed as needed, by priests.
|The Holy Oils in Our Churches.|
The priests of the various parishes,[after the chrism mass], obtain a sufficient quantity of the three Oils for the needs of their churches and people. In each parish church these consecrated Oils are kept with great care and reverence, being enclosed in suitable metallic bottles, which are preserved in an ambry or locked box, affixed to the wall of the sanctuary. The Oil of Catechumens is usually labeled O. C. or O. S. (" Oleum Catechumenorum" or "Oleum Sanctum"); the Chrism is distinguished by the letters S. C. (" Sanctum Chrisma"); and the Oil of the Sick ( " Oleum Infirmorum" ) bears the initials O. I.
- "The sacred chrism (myron), used in anointings as the sacramental sign of the seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit, is traditionally reserved and venerated in a secure place in the sanctuary. The oil of catechumens and the oil of the sick may also be placed there." Catechism of the Catholic Church.
The unused oils which may be left over from the preceding year are not to be used for any Sacrament or any liturgical purpose. They are poured into the sanctuary lamp, and are consumed as ordinary oil.
This necessarily incomplete account of the beautiful ceremonies of [the Church involving the holy oils] will show us the value which the Church attaches to these Holy Oils. She requires for their consecration a wealth of ritual which testifies to her appreciation of their importance in her liturgy; and she offers them a degree of homage which should teach us how holy and how efficacious for our salvation is this lifeless substance which she, inspired by her Divine Founder, consecrates for the benefit of us, her children, that through its use in Sacrament and in blessing we may receive graces which we need for the saving of our souls."